Tuesday, May 26, 2020

Cigarette Industry is Under Attack - 956 Words

The Cigarette Industry is under attack from all sides. They have battled public opinion, government regulations, and medical warnings since the mid 1900’s. A front-page article by Reader’s Digest in 1952 entitled â€Å"Cancer by the Carton† started the national dialogue about the negative health affects of smoking cigarettes. The medical community had published articles since the 1930’s about the possible negative affects of smoking, but it took until the 1950’s to gain public attention. Smoking prevalence among adults in the United States has dropped from 42% to 18.1% from 1968 to 2014. With the number of smoker dropping, and government regulation increasing, one could make the assumption that the Cigarette Industry is falling into steep economic decline. A little research shows the opposite. In Barbarians at the Gate: The Fall of RJR Nabisco Warren Buffet said, â€Å"Ill tell you why I like the cigarette business. It cost a penny to make. Sell it for a dollar. Its addictive. And theres a fantastic brand loyalty.† Using Porter’s Five Forces and analyzing the general environment, one can see that the Cigarette Industry is not only surviving, it is thriving. Cigarette companies have been forced to evolve over the past fifty years. Smoking a cigarette used to be a societal normal, but a smoker needs to be thirty feet from the building to smoke. Stepping outside to smoke a cigarette is almost taboo in today’s culture. Cigarette companies have had to fundamentally changeShow MoreRelatedBanning Cigarettes : Symbolic Inhalation Of Death1406 Words   |  6 PagesDeisy Dones Mrs. Nellon Am. Lit. Per.1 13 July, 2015 Banning Cigarettes Cigarettes the symbolic inhalation of death that fills our bodies with the relief of self imposed stresses of life; to make easier a journey by bringing a certain end closer with each breath; but do we even care? Do we even care about our well-being? Do we even care about the environment? Do we really want our children smoking cigarettes? Don’t you want to live long enough to see your grandchildren grow up. Seeing them takeRead Moreâ€Å"Cigarettes† A Death Product of Tobacco Industry should be Banned1544 Words   |  7 Pagesâ€Å"Cigarettes† A Death Product of Tobacco Industry should be Banned In the present age smoking cigarettes has emerged out as a fashion, especially in our teenagers. Quiet often, a boy or a girl can be seen puffing around on streets proudly. Their parents try their best to refrain them, yet all in vain. They are unaware of the possibility that most will find it very hard to give up this addiction. Alike the young, adults smoke far too often for a reasonable human being, indifferent to the consequencesRead MoreTobacco Companies And Responsibility Of Tobacco1446 Words   |  6 Pagesabout 30 others suffer from at least one serious tobacco related ailment. A typical smoker will take 10 â€Å"puffs† on a cigarette over a time period of about 5 minutes of that cigarette being lit. Therefore, a person who smokes about 1 pack (25 cigs.) daily would receive 250 â€Å"hits† of nicotine each day. Nicotine is a highly addictive substance found in the ingredients of a cigarette. Although the nicotine is addictive and can be toxic if ingested in hi gh dosage, it does not cause cancer in itself;Read MorePhilip Morris1160 Words   |  5 Pages1. How would you describe Marlboro s competitive position in early 1993? Marlboro, the leading cigarette brand for Philip Morris, was the dominant player in the premium priced market. While RJR was the second largest player in the market, RJR’s cigarette brands were fragmented. At the end of 1992, Marlboro had 24.4% unit market share, while each of the RJR brand cigarettes had less than 7% market share. Philip Morris, at 53% operating contribution margin, was significantly more profitable thanRead MoreUsing Vaporizing Pens Are Becoming A Very Popular Trend Essay1330 Words   |  6 Pagesstill awaiting FDA approval, the electronic cigarette, or e-cigarette, is growing popularity among those attempting to quit smoking. Young people are using vaporizing pens as a â€Å"safe alternative† to smoking. This issue needs to be addressed. Vaping is a lot more convenient than smoking traditional cigarettes. At a push of a button nicotine is being released. There also aren’t any laws or regulations on vapor pens like there are for traditional ci garettes. Vape pens also aren’t being used for justRead MoreSmoking and the Effects of It Essay1185 Words   |  5 Pagesbecause it is just too hard to quit or they are just so addicted to the chemicals that the tobacco companies use in their cigarettes and dont see the real problems that smoking can cause. If smoking did the same thing as it did on the outside as it does on the inside, how many people do you think will smoke then? Everyday, about 3,000 teenagers smoke their first cigarette. About half of those teenagers become addicted and then regular smokers before the age of eighteen. About one third of theseRead MoreThe Harmful Effects Of Smoking And Smoking1380 Words   |  6 Pagesthe sinful addiction caused by a key ingredient in cigarettes, and social issues smoking causes for smokers and their loved ones. Smoking should be prohibited completely because of the harmful physical and social effects it has on smokers and the non-smokers they associate with. First of all, smoking creates a number of health problems for smokers and anyone else exposed to tobacco smoke. In order to understand the harmful effects of cigarettes, one must first know what makes them so deadly. AccordingRead MoreThe Dangers Of Tobacco And Smoking1584 Words   |  7 Pagessmoke tobacco occasionally either from a pipe or a cigarette; not like people smoke today was very occasional stated in the History of Tobacco. The first main stream production of cigarettes began in 1865 but were made for soldiers in the Civil War. In 1881 that is when business picked up and everyone started smoking more frequently due to the mass amount of cigarettes being produced and the access to them (History of Tobacco). Since cigarettes have only been around for a little over a hundred yearsRead MoreDeath in, Death out in Each Puff1712 Words   |  7 PagesDo you or someone you know smoke cigarettes? Do they know what comes with taking in those pleasurable puffs? Many don’t, that is why cigarette manufacturers ought to have more said about what is being done to these death sticks. Numerous people don’t know that the tobacco industry adjusts the nicotine levels in cigarettes to make it harder for people to quit, add ammonia to speed up the transfer of nicotine to the brain, and the industry, as a whole, has to replace those smokers who have quit orRead More Cigarettes Should Be Made Illegal Essay1594 Words   |  7 PagesThe sale of cigarettes and tobacco is a multi-billion dollar industry, but is it truly worth all the problems that stem from their use. Health care costs are extremely high due to all the health problems associated with cigarettes and tobacco. Even though research has proven time and time again the harmful effects of cigarettes, and the rising cost of health care caused by cigarettes our government will not take a stand and stop all manufacturing of the horrible toxins. Every year new medical

Friday, May 15, 2020

Essay about Thank God for the Atomic Bomb - 618 Words

Thank God for the Atomic Bomb In Paul Russell’s passage from Thank God for the Atomic Bomb, he describes how the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were fully necessary. Russell agrees with President Truman’s decision to drop the atomic bombs because of the logical reasons. He gives examples that compare to the overall effect to America, and the positive things that happen to America such as the fact that the war would be over. I agree with Fussell’s opinion because the atomic bomb solved many problems in one shot, including and most importantly the war. Before Paul Russell was a professor at the University of Pennsylvania, he was an infantry lieutenant in World War II and has had first hand experiences about what happens at†¦show more content†¦Although, for me, it gives me enough information to tell me both sides, from looking at multiple resources I have come up with the idea that back then it was much more important for our country to win, and not only for â€Å"winningà ¢â‚¬  but for also the long term effects for America. In Paul Russell’s passage from Thank God for the Atomic Bomb, he describes how the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were necessary. I too agree with this decision to drop the bomb because of the logos reasons. Russell completely agrees with President Truman’s decision to drop the atomic bombs because of the logical reasons. He gives examples that compare to the overall effect to America, and the positive things that happen to America such as the fact that the war would be over. Russell’s decision shows his ethics in life, one may say that because he doesn’t seem to care about what happens to the Japanese he is cruel and cold. But he is thinking about the good of our country and you have to remember that during World War II the world was much more different than in the present. The ethics and morals were much more different than those in theShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of The Article Thank God Fo r The Atom Bomb 970 Words   |  4 PagesThe atom bomb is a bomb that derives its destructive power from the rapid release of nuclear energy by fission of heavy atomic nuclei, causing damage through heat, blast, and radioactivity. To create this weapon of mass destruction the government started the Manhattan Project and the main mastermind behind this project was Robert Oppenheimer. The project lasted from 1942 to 1946 and its goal was to create the first nuclear weapons for World War II. On August 6, 1945, the American bomber Enola GayRead MoreThe Dropping Of The Atomic Bomb During World War II760 Words   |  4 PagesAmanda Burnett 5/12/16 Justification of the Atomic Bomb Thesis: The dropping of the atomic bomb during World War II by the United States on Japan was a justified act. Not only was the dropping of the atomic bomb used to save American lives, but it prevented the war from lingering on, taking the lives of more civilians. The bomb did not just make sense, but it saved lives, despite taking some, therefore making the atomic bomb a reasonable action. It is not war mentality to think of preservingRead MoreThe Benefits of Dropping an Atomic Bomb on Japan Essay1279 Words   |  6 Pagessuffering, without suffering we would never learn from our mistakes. To make it right, pain and suffering is the key to windows, without it, there is no way of life.† On August 6, 1945 the atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima, a small city whose death toll rises to 90,000-166,000. On August 9th, a second bomb was dropped on Nagasaki, 60,000–80,000 . In total, 15 million people lost their lives during the duration of the Second World War. In John Herseys book, Hiroshima, he provides a detailed accountRead MoreThe Atomic Bombs910 Words   |  4 PagesDuring the 20th century, specifically the year 1945, the United States of America had two atomic bombs that the commander and chief, and president at the time, Harry Truman, knew about. President Truman plan was to drop the bombs on two of Japans cities, Hiroshima first and then Nagasaki. Truman’s plans went accordingly, which to this day leads to a very controversial topic on whether or not dropping the atomic bombs was a good or bad thing. There is evidence and reasoning to back up both claims, inRead MoreEssay on The Effects of the Atomic Bomb1601 Words   |  7 PagesThe Effects of the Atomic Bomb Some regard the atomic bomb as â€Å"the thank God for the atom bomb†. This places God on the U.S. side and regards the bombs as our saving grace. This bomb forced the Japanese to surrender which in turn proved the U.S. to be the heroes who saved the American’s lives.1 The Americans intended on ending the war but did not expect to end it with such a large number of casualties. The results of the atomic bomb and how it effected the Japanese people both emotionallyRead MoreThank God For The Atom Bomb973 Words   |  4 Pagesâ€Å"Thank God for the Atom Bomb† is an essay wrote by Paul Fussell in 1981 during the forty-second anniversary of the atom-bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The title of the essay is very provocative since a lot of people consider those bombs as inhuman and unethical. However, Fussell, in his essay gives a different point of view. In other words he gives us a point of view of someone who was the in the middle of the combat and even got wounded fighting in France. In the introduction to his essay, FussellRead MoreA Monument Of The World War I1102 Words   |  5 PagesA Monument to Peace Inspired by War Grant Deetch Humanities 120 Professor Aaron Nusz October 10, 2015 On August the sixth 1945 a single nuclear bomb nicknamed â€Å"Little Boy† was dropped on the City of Hiroshima in Japan. Then on August the ninth 1945 another bomb, this time nicknamed â€Å"Fat Man† was dropped on the City of Nagasaki Japan. While it is well known that nuclear weapons were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki Japan to bring World War Two to a decisive end, this piece of artRead MoreEssay about Nuclear Weapons Promote Religion2530 Words   |  11 Pages In some sort of crude sense which no vulgarity, no humor, no overstatement can quite extinguish, the physicists have known sin; and this is a knowledge which they cannot lose. J. Robert Oppenheimer (AJ Software and Multimedia. History of Atomic Bomb). nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;The most destructive weapons every created in the world that in seconds kill up to 200,000 people and destroy a area two mile wide was created not by generals but scientists. It forced people to look at religionRead MoreEssay on Kurt Vonnegut’s novels Cat’s Cradle and Slaughterhouse-Five1365 Words   |  6 Pagesthat only gained importance because people made them worth fighting and killing for. Cat’s Cradle was written in 1963. This novel is the story of how and why the world ends. The story ironically has the creator of the atomic bombing ending the world, however not with an atomic bomb. Unknown to the world, Dr. Felix Hoenikker created a substance called Ice-Nine, a certain form of crystallized Hydrogen and Oxygen that when in contact with any other water, will freeze all water it touches, and turn itRead MoreThe Necessity Of The Atomic Bomb1841 Words   |  8 PagesThe necessity of the atomic bombs have long been debated in America. Although they did contribute to stopping the war, Americans still wonder if murdering Japanese civilians was a necessary means to an end, or if it could have been avoided. Some people believe that the war would have ended without using the bombs. Others believe they were the sole purpose that the war finally ended. Many people were involved with bringing the bombs to fruition, such as the scientists, the government and military

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Environmental Impact Skiing On The Environment

The environmental impact skiing has as a whole on the environment has been a growing concern for some time now. Resorts especially have taken specific notice to their carbon foot print, and actions to reduce it. Several companies have taken this trend of going green and established themselves as the go to people for whatever their service/product may be. In large, the snow sports industry has stepped up their game with sustainability practices in hopes of leaving the world as they found it years ago. One slope side lighting company called â€Å"Arctic Beam† has developed a futuristic looking LED lighting solution that can cut energy usage in half for a typical ski resort. Although slope lighting is not a big issue for many ski resorts, the ones who offer night skiing can benefit tremendously. By reducing energy use by half and ski resort can now invest that half into other sustainable projects and further their steps to becoming an environmentally friendly resort. These lights also reduce light pollution by having a 120 degree angle of light and ability to concentrate the beam to certain areas. Compared to the usual gas light bulbs used today whose light direction is 360 degrees with little control over where the light can be directed. The difference is remarkable with visibility as well. The Arctic Beam puts out light which can be registered more readily by the human eye then light emitted by the gas bulbs. This creates a safer skiing and riding zone by increasing typical nightShow MoreRelatedEssay on The Environmental Impact of Skiing and Tourism1718 Words   |  7 PagesIt is extremely easy to forget the impact imposed by skiing on the mountain environments. Most people believe the only effect that they have on the environment within mountain regions are the tracks in the snow left by their skis. However, there is strong evidence that skiing has both a social and more noticeably, environmental impacts that influence the natural environment. Some expe rts of the Alpine region suggest that tourists directly affect over half of the Alps entire surface area. It can thereforeRead MoreEssay on Real Estate Development in the Ski Industry1259 Words   |  6 Pagesare also well entrenched in environmental issues. Being a resource economics major I now realize that the NH ski industry is no longer the perfect wonderland it seemed to me as a child. Topics such as wildlife habitat, water quality and stream health, air pollution and much more are now all directly impacted by the industry. No longer can lifts be built and new larger, faster snowmaking devices be used without first giving a lot of thoughts to the environmental impacts that may occur. Yet the industryRead More Snow on Arizona SnowBowl? Essays1668 Words   |  7 Pages The Arizona SnowBowl’s fool proof plan is to remodel their whole ski resort. The remodeling would include the building of one new chair lift, the addition of new ski runs, maintenance work on three exi sting chair lifts, lighting for night time skiing, the creation of a half pipe, the addition of a snow play area for families, the improvement of service facilities/infrastructure, and a cultural center for native Americans(Arizona SnowBowl Upgrade proposed Action, September 2002, p.2). Yet, theRead MoreClimate Change in Earth1381 Words   |  6 Pagesmelting of the snow means no skiing, unless of course, importation of snow occurs which is costly and not efficient. If climate does not begin to change the Alps are at risk of not being viable for skiing and thousands loose their jobs. The 1987/88 to 1989/90 winters were generally to warm for successful operation of ski resorts. This not only is a large concern when looking at the environment but also with the demand of skiing. Their has been a general drop in demand for skiing in Switzerland startingRead More Snow on Arizona SnowBowl Essay889 Words   |  4 Pagesconsistent. Some winters there’s excess of snow for skiing, then there are years like the 2001- 2002 ski season where there were only four inches of snow the whole winter. This makes for very unstable ski seasons, which in turn hurts Arizona SnowBowl’s and Flagstaff’s economy. As a solution the Arizona SnowBowl wants to put snow machines on the mountain to create their own snow. The problem with this addition is that artificial snow would impact the mountain in several ways. WhetherRead MoreGlobal Warming Has Left Upon Our Natural Environment1878 Words   |  8 PagesSnowfields, and several major Victorian ski resorts including Mt Buller, Mt Hotham and Falls Creek. The Alps are the only region on the Australian mainland in which deep snow falls naturally, however, with the ongoing impact that global warming has left upon our natural environment, it feels ominously close that the premonition of a snow-deprived winter may be as soon as 2050. More erratic looking winters have confirmed the beliefs of many that the ski industry may not be viable beyond the mid-centuryRead MoreLong-Term Effects of Global Tourism on Economy1742 Words   |  7 Pagesfacilities and service industry. And it is also a kind of leisure entertainment that has complex social phenomenon, involves the politics, economy, culture, history, geography, law, and other social fields. Generally speaking, tourism has a profound impact for the country. Tourism gradually has become a prevalent activity all over the world. Compared to 2009, there were 1002 million international tourists in 2010, which increased 6.6% over the last year.(UNWTO, 2011) And then, according to the theRead MoreTourism and Multiplier Effect Essay1240 Words   |  5 Pageshigh season. This means that the people involved with tourism for the most part will have to seek employment elsewhere, as the tourist season is concentrated in the peak season (mostly summer for areas such as Southern Spain, however for skiing or winter activities in areas such as Switzerland or Austria, this may differ). The tourist work is also likely to be temporary from year to year, low paid and informal, with payment cash in hand. This would indicate a transientRead MoreTourism : Positive And Negative Effects On The Economy779 Words   |  4 Pagesis a â€Å"fertile ground† for all nations in the world, especially developing countries to boost their economic growth, preserve their own proud culture and protect the environment. However, apart from these advantages, the disadvantages that it brings are undeniable. Tourism has both positive and negative effects on the economy, environment and society. First of all, it is important to understand that the development of tourism may bring diverse effects on the economy, both positives and negatives. TourismRead MoreBusiness Feasibility Operations And Strategy : Green Divers1639 Words   |  7 Pagesthe natural environment, cultures and community relationships as well as making sure it is economically viable. I am passionate about what sustainable tourism means and what it can do for developing countries. I want to be able to continue to travel and experience the world it’s always been and share that opportunity with others and future generations to come. I believe that it is very important that we start thinking about what we can begin to do now in order to minimize our impact on natural resources

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

El Nino Essay Example For Students

El Nino Essay This morning, before writing this column, I spent a considerableamount of time watering my wilting garden. Meanwhile, the New YorkYankees have been rained out for their third consecutive game. And outin California? Rain, no rain, rain, no rain Why are we sufferingsuch severe weather this summer? In case you have not heard, we areexperiencing a weather phenomenon called El Nino. What is El Nino, and How Long Will This Last? According to MichaelMcPhaden, director of the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean Array, an El Ninois born when west-blowing Pacific trade winds relax or reverse. Withoutthe wind at its back, seawater that typically piles up on the jaggedwestern edge of the Pacific around Indonesia, the Philippines andAustralia slides back toward the Americas. The sliding water movesin what scientists call Kelvin waves. It pushes the cold water down. That causes the initial warming, said McPhaden. At the same time, thePacific reacts to the lost wind by building another series of wavesunder water. Called , they roll west toward Indonesia, the Philippinesand Australia. Eventually, the series of waves strikes the coasts ofthose countries. Then, it reverses and heads back toward South America,traveling along the equator. As it passes, McPhaden said, it leavescold water closer to the surface.El Nino normally occurs around Christmas and usually last for a fewweeks to a few months. Sometimes an extremely warm event can developthat last for much longer time periods. A strong El Nino developed in1991 and lasted until 1995. We are apparently experiencing one of thesestronger El Ninos, as this one has lasted for nearly six months . Buthow long will this last? And then what?The Onset of La Nina After an El Nino event, weather conditions usuallyreturn to normal. However, in some years the trade winds can becomeextremely strong and an abnormal accumulation of cold water can occurin the central and eastern Pacific. This event is called La Nina. WhereEl Nino refers to a body of unusually warm water astride the equator bySouth America, La Nina describes a sea thats abnormally cool. Twoindependent computer models that forecast El Nino see on the horizon apronounced cooling of the same area of the Pacific. Sometimes, the coldwater is just enough to return ocean temperatures to normal. Notalways. Sometimes, it overshoots, McPhaden said. That would bring aLa Nina after El Nino.The models say . . . there will be a cold effect sometime next year magnitude and timing to be determined, said Tim Barnett, one of themodel makers at Scripps Institution of Oceanography in La Jolla. Theother model with the La Nina forecast comes from the Center forOcean-Land-Atmosphere Studies, a research institute in Calverton, Md. Climate experts agree that the forecasts should be viewed withconsiderable caution. Even without consulting computers, its a reasonably safe assumptionthat the present warm spell will be followed, eventually, by a coldone. Thats because the makings of a La Nina are built in to an ElNino. As McPhaden puts it, The seeds for the demise of El Nino aresown even at its onset. So maybe its time we stopped blaming El Ninofor all of our maladies. From now on, we can start blaming the onset ofLa Nina. Most people will not notice the transition from El Nino to LaNina, as the weather will still be hot and there will initially beincreased rainfall, particularly in California, which we may from thispoint forward refer to as CaliforNina.

Monday, April 13, 2020

Bilingual Education Essays - Multilingualism, Linguistic Rights

Bilingual Education Essays - Multilingualism, Linguistic Rights Bilingual Education Bilingual Education Imagine being brought up in a family speaking only one language for your entire life and then you had to move to a foreign land where the language is different. If you had a choice of progressively learning this new language over the course of six to nine years or being put into a classroom and have to virtually teach yourself the language by listening to others around you, which would you choose? Late exit bilingual education is a more effective form of bilingual education compared to the English immersion form of bilingual education in the fact that there are more benefits and less adverse effects. There are many reasons why late exit bilingual education should be the choice of public schools everywhere with high minority populations. One of the effects of late exit bilingual education is that the students would be able to maintain their cultural background instead of having to give up one or the other. Language is a big part of a personfs culture. Late exit bilingual education giv es the non-English speaking students more time to master the English language, which is not an easy language to learn in three years as the English immersion strategy teaches. The findings of the Ramirez team in 1991 evaluating the effectiveness of English immersion, early exit bilingual education, and late exit bilingual education further prove why late exit bilingual education is the one that needs to be used. To look at why keeping onefs culture is important one just needs to look at how and why this country was founded. The first Americans from England came here so they wouldnft have to conform to everything the rulers of England wanted. Immigrants founded this country. One of the greatest things about the United States is that there are so many different types of cultures everywhere you look. It is true that one needs to learn the English language to be successful, but forcing one to give up his or her cultural background is going against everything this country stands for. English immersion does just that by forcing the student to give up his or her cultural background and language (Faltis 191). Late exit bilingual education allows the child to progress effectively through the educational system with the instruction given in English to the extent to make this possible (Schneider, 1976, p. 128.). To throw a student into a classroom that speaks a language that is not familiar to them and forcing them to adjust in three years like English immersion does is not fair to the student. A sink or swim technique is not very beneficial and can cause more harms than good. The English language takes longer than that to gain mastery in even for people who have a firm English base to start from. The expected time to master the English language is anywhere from four to nine years for the average person (Collier, 1992). Time is needed for development, which is just not offered with English immersion. I was in a class with three Hispanic immigrants while I was in high school. They knew no English and were forced to adapt to the all-English environment through English immersion. As expected by the observers of these students, the immigrant students passed the class with D-es only because the teacher felt it was the best thing for them. We need to realize that these non-English speaking students and other like them who go through the English immersion program will graduate from high school by the mercy of teachers and will not be prepared to be successful in the so-called ereal worldf. This leads me to statistics that further the notion that late exit bilingual education is more effective than English immersion. These results were published in the Ramirez report. The Ramirez report contains some very important evidence that suggests late exit bilingual education is the more beneficial program to use. By looking at the report it is clear that even teachers of the English immersion strategy believe that many of the students in their classes would be better off if they remained in the program for more than the three years that it takes now. The report has evidence that

Wednesday, March 11, 2020

Structures and Agency Essays

Structures and Agency Essays Structures and Agency Essay Structures and Agency Essay and emplaced in terms of lifestyle, conditions, etc. Our actions therefore respond to the structures of one kind or another, in which we are situated. Another way of thinking about how structure changes us comes from the 19th century social scientist, Durkheim. An example comes from Durkheims work on suicide, which listed three categories in which suicide could occur: Egoistic: for reasons of self-dissatisfaction or in response to personal emotion. Altruistic: for the good of other people Anomic: because all structures have broken down and life no longer has meaning This shows that even in relation to this extreme decision, the individual does not act without reasons – reasons are taken in response to structures. Durkheims theory of social facts clarifies the relationship between structure and infrastructure. Structures have priority, externality and constrain, in relation to our behaviour. Structuralists reject pluralism: they argue that the atomized actor is the only actor we can know. We can therefore predict life chances according to structures such as class, race and gender. From a structuralist approach we can understand the relevance of the debate to politics. Structuralist Marxists would argue that human action and choice is determined by class. Society is composed of superstructure, what we can call civil society which includes things such as education, the arts and culture and substructure which is constituted of the material and economic base. Marx argued that the substructure defines the superstructure – clearly a structuralist and deterministic view of society and culture. Both levels, according to Marx, are controlled by a ruling class. Men make their own history, but not under circumstances of their own choosing. Marcuse, for example, argues that we do not live in a free society, but a one-dimensional one. There is no freedom, simply reproduction of the views of the ruling class. Similarly, structuralist feminism, of the 1960s, held patriarchy as the key structural influence. The work of Germaine Greer and Kate Millet reflects this. They saw the systematic exclusion and subordination of women from many aspects of the economy and society, and explained the position and behaviour of women through the structures set up by men. There are criticisms of this approach. Firstly, structuralist accounts underestimate the reflexivity and autonomy of human actions. They tend to concentrate on the individuals position in a hierarchy, and do not deal with the ambiguity and ambivalence of human experience. There is a skewed reality at work: they attribute too much power/influence to few structures. Marxists, for example, have been accused by feminists of ignoring gender as a structure. Furthermore, they postulate repetitive patterns of behaviour and therefore cannot explain how changes, for example Glasnost and the abandonment of Communism have occurred. Loyal and Barnes elucidate the key differences between structure and agency. They suggest â€Å"agency stands for ‘the freedom of the contingently acting subject over and against the constraints that are thought to derive from enduring social structures. To the extent that human beings have agency, they may act independently of and in opposition to structural constraints, and/or may (re)constitute social structures through their freely chosen actions. To the extent that they lack agency, human beings are conceived of as automata, following the dictates of social structures and exercising no choice in what they do. That, at any rate, is the commonest way of contrasting agency and structure in the context of what has become known as the structure/agency debate. †5 No current theorists would argue that either agency or structure are completely in control of our behaviour, although much is still influenced by this debate: most people today hold the view that agency and structure are enmeshed together. It is still a debate which informs how we think and research. A consequence of the abandonment of extreme positions is the new prevalence of postmodern thought, for which structure is no longer the complete answer. Stuart Hall, for example, admitted in the 1980s that we are living in new times, not defined by class, as in the Marxist approach of his work. Feminists have also accepted that patriarchy is not the sole reason for womens behaviour. Postmodernism has filled the vacuum. Postmodernism reflects the ambiguity and ambivalence of life, and suggests that structures such as class are discursive, representations of how life occurs, not real life. This is a thread in the work of Baudrillard, Barthes, Foucault and Derrida. Derridas work, for example, foregrounds the play of meaning in his differance which implies defer and differ. The point is that meaning is always deferred: there is never a final truth or fact, and reality is always being rewritten. This radically destabilises the idea of a shared reality, emphasising the elasticity of human experience and the need to look at life processually. Everything is moving, unfixed, unfastened, and there are no underlying fixed structures. Postmodernism also emphasises the need to be tolerant of other peoples viewpoints. It encourages multiculturalism. Another strand is Hybridity theory, which claims that everything is hybrid in some sense: that there is no purity. Consequently, no language or point of view is superior. â€Å"Giddens in the form of what he calls ‘Structuration’ theory has set out to try and transcend the dualism of structure and agency. His basic argument is that, rather than representing different phenomena, they are mutually dependent and internally related. 6 Structure only exists through agency and agents have ‘rules and resources’ between them which will facilitate or constrain their actions. These actions, can lead, in turn, to the reconstitution of the structure, defined as rules and resources, which will, in turn, affect future action. Thus, we have a close interrelationship between structure and agency. Giddens’ metaphor for this is that rather than being dist inct phenomena structure and agency are in fact two sides of the same coin. As such, we have a conception of the mutual constitution of structure and agency. As Taylor argues, â€Å"†¦this conception is the most distinctive feature of ‘Structuration’ theory, yet a feature which serves crucially to undermine the theory as a whole. †7 This approach combines the best of agency and structure approaches the actor is situated, but not clueless. This emphasises reflexivity, and assumes a high degree of self-awareness on the part of the actor, but also allows for the influence of structures and awareness of emplacement. Structuration theory is Giddens attempt to bridge the gap between theories which place emphasis on either structure or agency at the expense of the other. Structuralism represents one extreme on a continuum of theory in which social structures such as class, gender or race are seen as systems which are so pervasive through time and space that people have little or no choice but to operate within them. At the other end of the continuum, there is an emphasis is on the subjective individual, structures are seen as ephemeral; they are relative and secondary to agency. These extremes can be characterized as systems without actors in the case of the former, and actors without systems in the case of the latter. Giddens explains the relation between theses two extremes by offering a theory of structuration that: â€Å"†¦provide[s] an account of human agency which recognizes that human beings are purposive actors, who virtually all the time know what they are doing (under some description) and why. At the same time [as understanding that] the actions of each individual are embedded in social contexts stretching away from his or her activities and which causally influence their nature. 8 Grasping the recursive nature of social practices the duality of structure – is according to Giddens, the key to achieving this. The study of politics largely concerns conceptions of power; ‘who gets what, when and how. ’9 We can understand the role of the state to include controlling and distributing limited resources which determines who benefits, and is included, and who does not benefit and is excluded. Structure and agency can assign responsibility for political actions; it is t he head of state or the political-economic environment that causes events and change? An acknowledgement of the structure agency debate allows us to acknowledge the influence of structures and agents in the political world. The structure agency debate cannot be seen as an approach to political analysis in the same way that rational choice theory might be. However, it is an important way of considering and analysing issues. Let us examine for example, the cause of the Second Gulf War in Iraq. Structure and agency debates will examine this with the approach of; were the actors involved free to make decisions independently of structures and so, as individuals, change the course of history? Or was it a situation in which structure was the predominant factor and the actions of the individuals involved was pre-ordained? From an agency perspective, there are clearly two actors who made key decisions which led to the conflict; George Bush and Saddam Hussein. We can understand that George Bush may have been inclined to go to war as he was simply following in his father’s footsteps, attempting to finish off his father’s unfinished business and trying to consolidate American hegemony. Similarly, we can see that Saddam Hussein was responsible for the conflict by his continued refusal to allow weapons inspectors to sites and his recalcitrance to convince the world that they were not harbouring terrorism and producing weapons of mass destruction. On the structure side of the debate we can see that there were factors of structure; Bush and Hussein were individuals acting in accordance with the structures they themselves may have been unaware of, so that these actors were situated in an environment which meant the course of action was inevitable. Some structural factors that could be considered would be; rising oil prices which, had they continued would have undoubtedly fuelled the recession and increased US domestic stability. Furthermore, instability in the region and the history of Iraqi development of banned weapons and expelled weapons inspectors meant that in a structural sense, there was a sense of inevitability of the conflict. The issue of hegemony could also be regarded as a structuralist consideration as it pervades both economy and culture; it is the field on which the game is played. In providing an explanatory framework for political analysis, postmodernism is largely defunct. Postmodernist accounts of structure and agency reduce it to a discourse in which structure and agency are no more than arbitrary discursive constructs. In the case of war in Iraq we can see that this is a gross oversimplification. However, we can clearly see that these phenomena – Saddam, Bush, oil, terrorism and political stability are very much ‘out there’ with their own characteristics and properties. Structure and agency can produce social effect without being articulated in discourse. Furthermore, Giddens’ rejection of the dualism of structure and agency, regarding it as two sides of the same, replies to the criticism of dualistic constructs. The dialectical approach, and in particular, Giddens’ structuration theory provides a plausible explanation which, as Giddens elucidates, the two sides of the same coin. In the case aforementioned, this constructs a much more plausible explanation which takes into consideration all factors involved. Giddens suggests ‘systems’, in this case, the political climate, influence people’s actions, but in turn, social contexts, or ‘structures’ continue to exist only if they are sustained by people’s repeated actions, for example the actions of Bush and Saddam. â€Å"Giddens concept of the ‘duality of structure’ melds agency and structure into one instead of regarding them as a dualism that consists of two separable albeit connected phenomena; unless and until structure is instantiated it has only virtual existence in the form of memory traces in people’s minds. †10 To conclude, the structure-agency debate is useful insofar as it provides a framework within which to explain social change; and to attribute causation, and this is what Giddens recognises in his two sided coin analogy. Giddens is right that we can only see one side of the coin at a time; this results from our own perceptual limitations when we trying to interpret phenomena. Political theory needs abstraction and over-simplification of the world to enable us to explain phenomena and change; the structure agency debate is one tool to enable us to do this.

Monday, February 24, 2020

Country Profile Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Country Profile - Research Paper Example Kenya is a country situated in the eastern coast of Africa and lies on the equator. The country hares borders with five countries; Tanzania lies to the South, Uganda lies to the West, South Sudan to the North-West, Ethiopia lies to the North part of Kenya while Somalia lies to the North-Eastern side of the country. (Pateman, 28). The Republic of Kenya has a total land area of 582,684 square km. (224,960 square miles) this is nearly the same size as Texas. The country got its name from Mount Kenya, which is quite a significant landmark and is the second highest mountain peak in Africa. The capital city of Kenya is Nairobi which is also the largest city in the Eastern Africa region. HISTORY The history of Kenya can be evidently be traced in the late 1800s when the Kenya-Uganda railways was being constructed by the British. Before then, the country was under the Protectorate of Sultan of Zanzibar who handed over the country to the Germans. The Germans later handed over the country to Im perial British East Africa which was in charge of constructing the railways going through the two countries (from Kenya to Uganda). Later on after the First World War and the completing of the Kenya-Uganda railways most of the British and European settlers in the early 20th century chose to settle in the country especially the central highlands this was in order for them to practice farming and grow coffee and tea. This in did not go down well with the locals as they felt their lands had been grabbed by the colonialists who had forbidden them from cultivating their lands by imposing huge taxes soon their houses and farming. The natives later started a resistance and they called the resistance Mau Mau Rebellion. From the October of 1952 to December 1959 the country was under the state of emergency and the Mau Mau fighters were engaged in guerrilla war against British rule. The capture of key Mau Mau fighters led to the war ending and thereafter the first direct elections for the Afri cans in the Legislative Council was held in the 1957 and in December 12th 1963 Kenya gained independence from Britain and also formed their first constitution on the same day. (YouTube) and (Pateman). One year later on 12th December 1964 Kenya was declared a republic. The first president of the country was Jomo Kenyatta who was the president until his untimely death in 1978. Daniel Arap Moi took over the country from 1978 until 2002 when a new political revolution led by the current president Mwai Kibaki won the election took over. In 2007 there was a massive ethnic unrest and political violence after different political parties accused the current president of rigging the election, this led to approximately more than 1000 people being killed and more than 60,000 displaced in the ethnic violence that was the aftermath of the flawed election. President Mwai Kibaki is expected to hand over the presidency in 2013. STRUCTURE OF GOVERNMENT Kenya is a democratic republic in the sense that the president is both the head of state and also he is the head of the government. The country has also a multi party system of politics. After the 2007 ethnic clashes caused by the elections, there has been constitutional amendments that enabled the sharing of the executive powers between the two political rivals in the government that is the President and the Prime Minister. The executive power is mainly exercised by the